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campanula:glomerata

glomerata

Campanula glomerata - Il libro dei fiori, Ippolito Pizzetti e Henry Cocker, page 185.
Campanula glomerata - Photographer: Linden Hawthorne @Haggewoods - Taken in North Yorkshire. A wild population.

Campanula glomerata

L. glomeratus, lat., kasautunut1).

Stamp with Campanula glomerata - Suomi Finland - Photographer: Herman Berteler.

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Infrageneric Taxa

Fam. des Campanulacées. Section 2: Calice sans appendice. Groupe 1: - Capsules á 3 loges, sessiles, dressées2)

* Sect. Involucratae (Fomin) Charadze in Zam. Sist. Geogr. Rast. (Tbilisi) 15:30(1949).

* Syn.: Ser. Involucratae Fomin in Fl. Cauc. Crit. 4, 6:100(1906).

* Subsect. Involucratae (Fomin) Fedorov in Fl. URSS 24:198(1957).

* Type. Campanula glomerata L., Sp.Pl. 166(1753).3)

Nomenclatuur

L. (1753)- Section III: Cervicaria Neilr.(1859)4)

Some material listed as Campanula Reuterana Boiss. & Bal. is Campanula glomerata 5).

Campanula glomerata - Foto Herman Berteler
Campanula glomerata - Foto and drawing Herman Berteler

Campanula glomerata x Campanula spicata Murr (1898), con le due forme: (super) Campanula spicata x Campanula glomerata = Campanula Pechlaneri Murr. in D. Torre et S. (1912) e (sub) Campanula spicata x Campanula glomerata = Campanula glomeratiformis Murr in D. Torre et S. (1912). = Alto Adige al Brennero.6)
Campanula glomerata Lin. - Fr. Campanule á fleurs agglomérées, Syn franc.- Campanule á fleurs en téte, Campanula glomérulée7)

Names

Eng.: Clustered Bells Clustered bellflower

N.: Nogle-klokke
Franc.: Campanula glomerulee; Campanule agglomeree; Ganteline d'Angleterre; Campanule á fleurs agglomérées, Campanule á fleurs en téte, Campanula glomérulée
D.: Geknauelte Glockenblume; Buschel-Glockenblume; Buschglocke; Bussglocklein
Fi.: Peurankello
Be.: Kluwenklokje, Kluwendragend Klokje
NL.: Kluwenklokje

Habitus

Indigéne vivace (Franc.) - tiges pubescentes, scabres, élevées de 30 á 50 centimétres.8)

(pl. 379: 1.789, plante fleurie; 1.789. 2e., plante fleurie d'une variete). - C'est une plante dont la taille peut varier de 3 à 80 cm. C'est une plante vivace, a tige fleurie dressee, un peu anguleuse dans sa langueur, a parties souterraines non epaissies, constituees primitivement par la base de la fige, l'axe hypocotyle et la racine principale. La plante se perpetue par des bourgeons nes sur la tige souterraine. (On a decrit de nombreuses anomalies de cette espece: verdissement des fleurs sous 'influence d'Acariens du genre Phytoptus; corolle doublee; fleurs a 4 etamines developpees, la cinquime etant transformee en une sorte de petale; fleurs a 10 etamines; fleurs a 4 sepales, 4 petales, 4 etamines, 2 a 4 carpelles; fleurs ayant des pedoncules qui peuvent atteindre jusqu'a 5 centimetres de longueur; fleurs solitaires remplacant les capitules lateraux, etc.).9)

Camp á fleurs agglomérées, élégante. Philippe L. de Vilmorin, 'Les Fleurs de Pleine Terre', Paris 1909, 5th Edition. Photo: Herman Berteler.

12-30(-70)cm. 10)

E piante perenne alta sino a 60cm. Ha una rosetta gasale di foglie ovali-arrotondate, a margine dentato, picciolate, mentre le cauline sono parzialmente abbraccianti. 11)
Altezza: cm. 30-50. Specie erbacea perenne, adatta alle bordure, in esposizioni semiombreggiate.12)
Erect, rather coarse perennial, 1-3 ft., stems simple or branched.
Perenni. Fg. oscuram. dentate. Brattee piu brevi dei fl. Rz. gracile, nerastro. Fusto eretto, semplice (1/2 - 10dm.).

Weichhaarig. Die erste Achse kann neben den unbegrenzte Laubblattrosette, auch seitlich ihr gleiche producieren; die unteren Verzweigungen der bluhenden Sprosse entwickeln sich ebenfalls haufig in unbegrenzte Achsen. In fallen wie Campanula Trachelium L., Campanula persicifolia L. und Campanula glomerata L., beschliessen die Bluten schon die erste Achse.

Meistens werden hier die Erneuerungssprosse aus den Achseln schuppenformiger Niederb. gebildet. Die Erneuerungssprosse tragen ihrerseits eine Anzahl Niederb., die meist unterirdisch bleiben, eine Anzahl Laubb. und schliessen mit einem Blutenstand ab. Die unterirdischen Teile der Erneuerubgssprosse bleiben meist 1 oder 2 Jahre, nachdem ihr oberirdischer Teil zur Bl. gelangt und dann abgestorben ist, erhalten und es bildet sich dadurch ein mehr oder weniger verzweigtes Rhizom, das in den einzelnen Fallen ein sehr verschiedenes Aussehen haben kann, selten jedoch stark in die Dicke wachst. Dagegen verdicken sich nicht selten 1 oder mehr Wurzeln der Erneuerungssprosse ziemlich betrachtlich und werden dadurch zuweilen knolenformig (Canarina etc.) 13)
Hirvenkello ja sen lahisukulainen peurankello, Campanula glomerata, kuuluvat siihen helposti tunnettavaan kellokukkien ryhmaan, joiden kukat ovat perattomia ja sijaitsevat tiheana mykeromaisena kukintona varren latvassa. Usein myos ylimpien lehtien hangassa on pienempia kukkarykelmia. Selvimmat lajien valiset erot ovat aluslehtien ja verhionliuskojen muodossa. Hirvenkellon aluslehtien lapa on vahitellen tyveensa pain kapeneva ja jtkuu ruodin molommin puolin selvana siipipalteena; Campanula glomerata n aluslehtien tyvi on pyoreahkon, jopa herttamainen, ja ruoti siipipalteeton.14).
Zaden verzameld in 1947 in Koeban en in 1971 in de bergketen Terski-Alatau, bij Alma-Ata, in de bos-weide-steppen gordel. Hoogte 50-60 cm. Voortplanting d.m.v. zaden. Dekoratief.15)

Leaves

Feuilles ovales-lancéolées, poilues, finement dentées, les caulinaires embrassantes.16)

Les feuilles sont crénelées sur les bords et couvertes de petits poils; les feuilles inférieures sont souvent à limbe ovale, eu caeur renversé et attachees par un petiole net; plus rarement toutes les feuilles sont sans petiole.17)
Ha una rosetta gasale di foglie ovali-arrotondate, a margine dentato, picciolate, mentre le cauline sono parzialmente abbraccianti. 18)
Leaves ovate-oblong to lanceolate, to 5 in. long, minutely serrate, the lowest long petioled.
Untere Blatter eiformig oder eilanzettlich.
Fg. variabili, le infer. lungam. picciolate, le super. abbraccianti. Brattee ovali, acute od acuminate. 19)

Flowers

Fleurs sessiles, dressées, entremélees de bractees et disposees en capitules, dont un, le principal, est terminal; les autres sont latéroux, plus petits et distants; corolle d'un coloris bleu-violet, longue d'environ 2 centimétre, faiblement velue, a lobes ovales-aigus.20)

Et qui épanouit depuis le mois de juin jusqu'au mois de septembre ses fleurs bleues ou d'un bleu lilace (tres rarement blanches). Le calice est plus ou moins valu, à divisions aiguës au sommet, et ne présentant pas, entre les divisions, de renflements descendants; les divisions du calice mesurent ordinairement la moitie de la longueur de la corolle; celle-ci est velue et decoupee superieurement en 5 lobes qui ont environ le tiers de sa longueur totale, laquelle est en moyenne a peu pres de 2 centimetres, mais cette longueur est tres diverse et peut varier du simple au quadruple. Le style est moins long que la corolle, en général, et se terminé par 3 stigmates. Les fruits murs sont dressés. Les fleurs, sans pedoncule distinct, sont groupees presque en capitules au sommet de la tige fleurie, ou, souvent aussi, a l'aisselle des feuilles superieures dont la base est elargie.21)
Fiorendo da giugno ad agosto. La pianta ha aspetto peloso e porta fiori in glomeruli terminali con corelle a forma di imbuto lunghe da 2 a 3cm. di colore azzurro o purpureo.22)
Fioritura: V-VII. I fiori sono circondati da brattee e radunati in capolini su steli eretti; il principale e terminale, gli altri, piu piccoli, laterali. I fiori sono imbutiformi, blu violetto, ma esistono anche varieta a fiori bianchi o porpora.23)
Giu.-Sett. Calice ca. peloso. Corolla lunga 10-30mm., azzurra, pelosetta. Stilo rinchiuso.24)
Flower measuring, between 40 - 50mm (1 1/2 - 2 in.)25)
Flowers in dense terminal and axillary clusters, calyx without appendages, corolla blue or white, ¾-1 in. long.
Blutenstand kopfig. Kelchbuchten mit Anhangen. Kelchblatter lang, zugespitzt.
Juin-aout

AlpenPix - Campanula glomerata - Locality: Italy - Image captured in the Dolomites of Northern Italy - Cliff Booker.

Chromosomes

Lajin kromosomiluku on yleisimmin 2n = 30, eraalla Karpaateilla esiintyvalla tyypilla myos 2n = 34. T.W.J.Gadella, Wentia 11:81-84. 1964.26).

Fruit

Seed available, in small quantity. Species actually grown or used for breeding 27)

Kapsel nahe am Grunde aufspringend (Hangende Kapseln springen meist nahe am Grunde, aufrechte nahe den Kelchb. auf. Man kann daher im Allgemeinen die Art des Aufspringens aus der Stellung der verbluhten Bl. erschliessen, besonders wenn diese gestielt sind.) Sect. I Medium Tourn. (als Gatt.). B. Triloculares. Kapsel 3facherig (seltener bei ein- und derselben Art hier und da auch 5facherig). 28)

Zaden verzameld in 1947 in Koeban en in 1971 in de bergketen Terski-Alatau, bij Alma-Ata, in de bos-weide-steppen gordel. Voortplanting d.m.v. zaden. Dekoratief.29)

Varieties

* Campanula glomerata L. var.
2704-60. Orig. Europe, Asie - Europe - Asia. Fr. Campanule Ang. Bellflower De: Blooms Nurs. Ltd., Bressingham, England. Descr.: 3 plantes. 26-10-6030)
* Campanula glomerata var. aberrans
* Campanula glomerata var. acaulis Rechn - Dwarf Clustered Bellflower

Campanula glomerata var. acaulis - Foto and drawing Herman Berteler
AlpenPix - Campanula glomerata acaulis - Jane Hendrix - Note: 5-10 inches tall; purple-blue; full sun to light shade; ordinary garden soil; blooms mid- to late summer.

Campanula glomerata acaulis - MijnTuin.org - Photographer: Noortje.
Campanula glomerata var. acaulis - Photographer: Perennials.com.

Seed available, in small quantity. Species actually grown or used for breeding 31)
Flower clusters on short stems barely longer than the rosette.
The flower color is bluish and the flowering period is from about June to August. The leaves are green and about 10 cm. long. The mature height of this perennial is about 30 cm. Withstands temperatures up to -35 gr. C. This plant is native to the mountains and is therefore very suitable for the rock garden in the stack wall or between stones (including paving). Requires a sunny spot and a moderately rich soil if they are satisfied with a light shade. They generally grows quite quickly.32)
USDA Zone: 2-9. Plant number: 1.110.290. Bellflowers are among the most popular of perennials. This selection will form a low patch of large green leaves, bearing taller stems with clusters of showy deep-purple funnel-shaped flowers in early summer. Inclined to spread into a patch but easily managed by dividing in spring or fall. Excellent for edging or in a large rock garden. Also well-suited to tubs and mixed containers. May benefit from a hard clipping back immediately after blooming, to maintain a low, compact mound. Keep this away from delicate neighbouring alpine plants which might get smothered. Sun Exposure; Full Sun or Partial Shade. Soil Type; Normal or Sandy or Clay. Soil pH; Neutral or Alkaline or Acid. Soil Moisture; Average or Moist. Care Level; Easy. Flower Colour; Purple. Blooming Time; Early Summer, Mid Summer. Foliage Color; Deep Green. Accent: Good Texture/Form, Border, Containers, Cut Flower, Edging, Rabbit Resistant, Massed, Woodland, Flower Head Size; Large. Height; 15-20 cm, 6-8 inches. Spread; 30-60 cm, 12-23 inches. Foot Traffic; None. Growth Rate; Fast.33)

* Campanula glomerata var. acaulis alba

Campanula glomerata var. acaulis alba - Foto Herman Berteler
Campanula glomerata var. acaulis alba - Foto and drawing Herman Berteler

* Campanula glomerata var. affinis

* Campanula glomerata ssp. Aggregata (W., 1813). Capolino terminale accompagnato da ca. numerosi capolini ascellari (talvolta ridotti a 1-2). Capolino ascellari sessili o quasi. Pianta glabrescente, verdastra (4-8dm.). - Col tipo qua e la. - Campanula glomerata var. Lam (1783), - Campanula glomerata var. Hermanni Ten. (1830), - Campanula glomerata var. glabra Bluff et Fing. (1836), - Campanula glomerata var. sparsiflora DC. f. (1839)34)

* Campanula glomerata var. alba

Campanula glomerata var. alba - Photographer: Missouri Botanical Garden
Campanula glomerata var. alba - Photographer: Missouri Botanical Garden

Campanula glomerata var. alba - Photographer: Perennials.com.

From Europe, temperate Asia. Bloom Time: June to July, White. Full sun to part shade. This clustered bellflower variety is an upright, clump-forming perennial which typically grows 1.5-2' tall on erect, branching stems. Ovate to lance-shaped, toothed, somewhat hairy, medium green basal leaves (to 5“ long) with shorter stem leaves. Upward facing, bell-shaped, white flowers (to 1.5” long) appear primarily in terminal spherical clusters atop the stems, with smaller flower clusters blooming in the upper leaf axils. Main bloom is in late spring to early summer. Clusters can have up to 15 flowers each, hence the common name. This variety is basically a white-flowered version of the popular purple-flowered Campanula glomerata cv. 'Superba'. Group or mass. Rock gardens, borders, cottage gardens or informal naturalized areas. Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soil in full sun to part shade. Prefers part shade in hot summer climates. Needs regular moisture. Promptly remove spent flower stems to encourage additional bloom. Divide clumps in fall every 3-5 years to maintain vigor and/or control spread. Plants may be grown from seed, and may self-seed somewhat rapidly to the point of being weedy under ideal growing conditions.35)

Species actually grown or used for breeding 36)
White Clustered Bellflower. USDA Zone: 2-9. Plant number: 1.110.790. Bellflowers are among the most popular of perennials. This selection will produce a low clump of large green leaves. Medium-tall upright stems appear in early summer, bearing large, showy clusters of white funnel-shaped flowers. Terrific for cutting. Plants will quickly form a large clump, so allow plenty of space when planting, or plan to reduce the size each spring. Easily divided in spring or fall. Plants may benefit from a hard clipping back immediately after blooming, to maintain a low, compact mound. Nice contrast to the usual blue forms. Sun Exposure; Full Sun or Partial Shade. Soil Type; Normal or Sandy or Clay. Soil pH; Neutral or Alkaline or Acid. Soil Moisture; Average or Moist. Care Level; Easy. Flower Colour; White. Blooming Time; Early Summer, Mid Summer. Foliage Color; Deep Green. Plant Uses & Characteristics; Accent: Good Texture/Form, Border, Containers, Cut Flower, Rabbit Resistant, Massed Flower Head, Size Large, Height; 45-60 cm, 18-23 inches. Spread; 45-60 cm, 18-23 inches. Foot Traffic; None. Growth Rate; Fast.37)

* Campanula glomerata var. alliarifolia

* Campanula glomerata var. artvinense

* Campanula glomerata var. bernice

* Campanula glomerata ssp. Cervicarioides R. et S., 1819. Capolino terminale accompagnato da ca. numerosi capolini ascellari (talvolta ridotti a 1-2). Capolino ascellari sessili o quasi. Pianta irsuta, a fusti flessuosi (sino 1m.). Fg. cauline strettam. lanceolate, ca. ricurve. Veron., Colli di Torino, Parmig. ad Albareto e Tabiano e Reggiano a Civago (Franc.). - Campanula Cervicaria Vill. (1787) non L., - Campanula glomerata var. Clusiana Moretti in Re (1825), - Campanula lingulata Rchb. (1828), non W. et K. 38)

1.789. 7e. Alphonse de Candolle (Fausse-Cervicaire). - Feuilles moyennes tres aigues, plus ou moins pliees et recourbees; capitule terminal tres grand par rapport a ceux qui sont a l'aiselle des feuilles superieures. (Dauphine, Gard). - A fleurs d'un violet-bleuatre et a feuilles inferieures presentant un tres long petiole, etc.39)
* Campanula glomerata var. Clusiana Moretti in Re (1825) = Campanula glomerata ssp. Cervicarioides R. et S., 1819. Capolino terminale accompagnato da ca. numerosi capolini ascellari (talvolta ridotti a 1-2). Capolino ascellari sessili o quasi. Pianta irsuta, a fusti flessuosi (sino 1m.). Fg. cauline strettam. lanceolate, ca. ricurve. Veron., Colli di Torino, Parmig. ad Albareto e Tabiano e Reggiano a Civago (Franc.). - Campanula Cervicaria Vill. (1787) non L., - Campanula glomerata var. Clusiana Moretti in Re (1825), - Campanula lingulata Rchb. (1828), non W. et K. 40)

* Campanula glomerata var. congesta

1.789. 2e. Rouy (a fleurs tres serrees) Synonyme: Campanula congesta R. et S. (pl.379: 1.789. 2e., plante fleurie). - Feuilles sans petiole, parfois embrassant la tige par leur base, rudes au toucher; tige presque sans poils. (Ca et la, assez commun ou assez rare.)41)
* Campanula glomerata L. var. dahurica Fisch. Ex Ker-Gawl. Synoniem Campanula speciosa Hornem 42).
Synonym Campanula cephalotes Fisch. ex Nakai; Campanula glomerata var. speciosa (Hornem.) A. DC.; Campanula speciosa Hornem., non Gilib.; Campanula glomerata sensu auct. Japon., non L. - Yatsushiro-so.
Perennial, short-hairy; rhizomes short-creeping; stems erect, 40-80cm. long, simple; lower cauline leaves broadly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 5-10cm. long, 1-3cm. wide, gradually acute, rounded to cuneate at base, irregularly serrulate, winged-petiolate, the upper sessile and semiclasping; flowers about 10, erect, sessile, in a subcapitate terminal panicle; calyx-lobes linear or linear-lanceolate; corolla blue-purple, 2-2.5 (-3)cm. long, 5-lobed. - Aug.-Sept. Mountains: Kyushu. - Korea, Manchuria, and e.Siberia. The typical phase occurs in Eurasia.43)

Seed available, in small quantity. Species actually grown or used for breeding 44)

Campanula glomerata L. var. dahurica Tisch. ex Ker-Gawl. 1031-66. Orig. Eurasie - Eurasia. Fr. Campanule á f. aggloméréés Ang. Clustered Bellflower De: Sheridan Nurseries Ltd., Montreal. Descr.: 3 plantes. 12-4-6645)

* Campanula glomerata var. dahurica superba

* Campanula glomerata var. élégante (Campanula glomerata Lin. var. speciosa A.DC.), syn.lat. Campanula capitata Hort.; Campanula speciosa Horn (non Pourr.). Fr. Campanule á bouquéts Siberie-Vivaice. Cette variété a des fleurs grandes, d'un joli bleu-violet, comme vernisse, réunies au sommet de tiges dressées, hautes de 50 á 60 centimétres, en capitules volumineux, larges de 6 á 8 centimétres. C'est certainement une de nos plus belles plantes vivaces, et, cultivée en terrain sain, aéré et á bonne exposition, elle produira des touffes superbes. Sa floraison a lieu de Mai en Juin. Gette Campanule convient á l ''ornementation des plates-bandes, des corbeilles, des rocailles; on en fait de trés belles potées et on l'emploie fréquemment aussi dans la composition des bouquets. Culture et Multiplication. Comme elle ne produit pas de graines, non plus que la varieté á fleurs doubles, on doit les multiplier toutes deux par la division des touffes et surtout par la replantation de leurs rejets feuillés stériles, que l'on fait de pr'f'rence á la fin de l'été et au commencement de l'automne, ou de bonne heure au printemps. Les limaces et limacons se montrent tout particuliérement friands de cette espéce et surtout de la varieté speciosa. 46)

* Campanula glomerata ssp. elliptica Alphonse de Candolle (a feuilles elliptiques) - 1.789. 4e. Synonyme: Campanula elliptica Kitaibel, 1814. - Feuilles superieures, entourant les fleurs, relativement grandes et veinees-blanchatres; feuilles inferieures et moyennes a limbe d'un contour elliptique ou a peine en caeur renverse a la base; tige tres velue, flexueuse. (Ca et la, assez commun ou assez rare.) A fleurs bleues et a bractees plus grandes que les fleurs.47)

* Campanula glomerata var. elongata

* Campanula glomerata ssp. Farinosa Andrez.(1822). Capolino terminale accompagnato da ca. numerosi capolini ascellari (talvolta ridotti a 1-2). Capolino ascellari sessili o quasi. Pianta ca. lanoso-tomentosa, grigiastra. - Trevig., Veron., Trent., Bresc., Bergam., Comasco, C. Tic., V. d'Aosta, M. Cenisio, Alpi Mar. a Casotto, App. emil. ed abr. - Campanula petraea All. (1785), Ten. (1811-15). non L., - Campanula glomerata var. salviifolia Wallr. (1822), - Campanula glomerata var. pyrenaica Ten. (1830)48)

Information needed.- Species actually grown or used for breeding 49)
Ukrainan aroilta Italiaan asti esiintyy joskus omana lajinaankin pidetty Campanula glomerata subsp. farinosa (Rochel) Jav., jonka lehdet ovat alapinnaltaan tiheaan harmaanukkaiset. Tiheakarvaisimmista kasveista on kaytetty nimea Campanula glomerata var. salviifolia Wallr., jota kuitenkin pidetaan Campanula glomerata subsp. farinosa n toisintonimena50).
1.789. 6e. Koch (farineuse). - Fleurs blan-chatres, cotonneuses en dessous. (Ca et la, rare).51)
* Campanula glomerata var. flora duplena
* Campanula glomerata var. flor. dupl. Hort, syn.lat. Campanula capitata var. flor.dupl. Hort. Les fleurs de cette trés belle variété sont plus grandes que dans l'espéce, et elles prescentent plusieurs corolles emboitees, de couleur bleu-violet. 52)
* Campanula glomerata var. flore pleno
* Campanula glomerata var. glabra Bluff et Fing. (1836) = Campanula glomerata ssp. Aggregata (W., 1813). Capolino terminale accompagnato da ca. numerosi capolini ascellari (talvolta ridotti a 1-2). Capolino ascellari sessili o quasi. Pianta glabrescente, verdastra (4-8dm.). - Col tipo qua e la. - Campanula glomerata var. Lam (1783), - Campanula glomerata var. Hermanni Ten. (1830), - Campanula glomerata var. glabra Bluff et Fing. (1836), - Campanula glomerata var. sparsiflora DC. f. (1839)53)

* Campanula glomerata var. glabrifolia

* Campanula glomerata var. glomerata

Suomalainen peurankello kuuluu joka tapauksessa kokonaan lajin nimirotuun Campanula glomerata subsp. glomerata. Sen erilaiset karvaisuustyypit ovat ilmeisesti normaalia alalajin sisaista muuntelua, jolle ei liene syyta antaa erityista taksonomista merkitysta.54).
* Campanula glomerata var. Hermanni Ten.(1830) = Campanula glomerata ssp. Aggregata (W., 1813). Capolino terminale accompagnato da ca. numerosi capolini ascellari (talvolta ridotti a 1-2). Capolino ascellari sessili o quasi. Pianta glabrescente, verdastra (4-8dm.). - Col tipo qua e la. - Campanula glomerata var. Lam (1783), - Campanula glomerata var. Hermanni Ten. (1830), - Campanula glomerata var. glabra Bluff et Fing. (1836), - Campanula glomerata var. sparsiflora DC. f. (1839)55)

* Campanula glomerata var. hispida

* Campanula glomerata var. john elliot

* Campanula glomerata var. Lam (1783) = Campanula glomerata ssp. Aggregata (W., 1813). Capolino terminale accompagnato da ca. numerosi capolini ascellari (talvolta ridotti a 1-2). Capolino ascellari sessili o quasi. Pianta glabrescente, verdastra (4-8dm.). - Col tipo qua e la. - Campanula glomerata var. Lam (1783), - Campanula glomerata var. Hermanni Ten. (1830), - Campanula glomerata var. glabra Bluff et Fing. (1836), - Campanula glomerata var. sparsiflora DC. f. (1839)56)
* Campanula glomerata var. lilacina

* Campanula glomerata var. mauve queen

* Campanula glomerata var. moretti

* Campanula glomerata var. nana

glomerata var. nana :Orig 015198-0055-76 Locn 1A EU, rec: PLNT: 1ab: 1, ayr: 76 57)
18.00/p.10, 130.00/p.100 Campanulaceae58)
* Campanula glomerata var.nana alba
20.00/p.10, 150.00/p.100 Campanulaceae59)
* Campanula glomerata var. nicaeensis - a fleurs violettes en epi court et dense.60)
* Campanula glomerata var. paniculata Gola (1909), L. Vacc. (1911) = Campanula glomerata ssp. Ramosa L. et M. Gortani (1906). Capolino terminale accompagnato da ca. numerosi capolini ascellari (talvolta ridotti a 1-2). Capolini ascellari ca. lungam. peduncolati, almeno gli infer. - Pianta glabrescente. - Friuli, Carnia, Belluno, V. d'Ossola, V. d'Aosta e Colli di Torino. - Campanula glomerata var. paniculata Gola (1909), L. Vacc. (1911)61)

* Campanula glomerata var. plena

* Campanula glomerata var. f. pusilla DC. f. (1839) = Campanula glomerata ssp. Typica, Capolino terminale unico, rr. con qualche fascetto di fi. ascellari. Fg. infer. ca. arrotondato-cuoriformi alla base, ovali. Corolla mediocre. Pianta pelosa o glabrescente, alta 2-4dm. o nei luoghi sterili soltanto 3-6cm. e con capolino a pochi fi. (= Campanula glomerata var. f. pusilla DC. f. (1839). - Istria, It. super., App. sett. e centr. sino camp., avell. a M. Vergine, salern. nei M. di Calvanico e lucano pr. Muro ed Abriola, da confermarsi per la Sard. nel Sassarese. - Campanula serotina Wettst. (1900) (forma).62)
1.789. 3e. Alphonse de Candolle (naine). - Plante de 3 a 6 cm., a capitule terminal renfermant peu de fleurs, parfois meme une seule; feuilles a limbe en caeur renverse. (Ca et la, assez rare). A fleurs peu nombreuses, en tete et a feuilles a limbe en caeur renverse.63)
* Campanula glomerata var. pyrenaica Ten. (1830) = Campanula glomerata ssp. Farinosa Andrez.(1822). Capolino terminale accompagnato da ca. numerosi capolini ascellari (talvolta ridotti a 1-2). Capolino ascellari sessili o quasi. Pianta ca. lanoso-tomentosa, grigiastra. - Trevig., Veron., Trent., Bresc., Bergam., Comasco, C. Tic., V. d'Aosta, M. Cenisio, Alpi Mar. a Casotto, App. emil. ed abr. - Campanula petraea All. (1785), Ten. (1811-15). non L., - Campanula glomerata var. salviifolia Wallr. (1822), - Campanula glomerata var. pyrenaica Ten. (1830)64)

* Campanula glomerata ssp. Ramosa L. et M. Gortani (1906). Capolino terminale accompagnato da ca. numerosi capolini ascellari (talvolta ridotti a 1-2). Capolini ascellari ca. lungam. peduncolati, almeno gli infer. - Pianta glabrescente. - Friuli, Carnia, Belluno, V. d'Ossola, V. d'Aosta e Colli di Torino. - Campanula glomerata var. paniculata Gola (1909), L. Vacc. (1911)65)
* Campanula glomerata var. re-colla

* Campanula glomerata var. roem et schult

* Campanula glomerata var. salviifolia Wallr. (1822) = Campanula glomerata ssp. Farinosa Andrez.(1822). Capolino terminale accompagnato da ca. numerosi capolini ascellari (talvolta ridotti a 1-2). Capolino ascellari sessili o quasi. Pianta ca. lanoso-tomentosa, grigiastra. - Trevig., Veron., Trent., Bresc., Bergam., Comasco, C. Tic., V. d'Aosta, M. Cenisio, Alpi Mar. a Casotto, App. emil. ed abr. - Campanula petraea All. (1785), Ten. (1811-15). non L., - Campanula glomerata var. salviifolia Wallr. (1822), - Campanula glomerata var. pyrenaica Ten. (1830)66)

Tiheakarvaisimmista kasveista on kaytetty nimea Campanula glomerata var. salviifolia Wallr., jota kuitenkin pidetaan Campanula glomerata subsp. farinosa n toisintonimena.67).

* Campanula glomerata var. serotina

Muuan aarimmaisyystyyppi on Alpeilla ja Balkanilla kasvava Campanula glomerata subsp. serotina (Wettst.) O. Schwarz, jonka varsi on koheneva ja matala, vain 2-10 cm pitka.68).
* Campanula glomerata var. sibirica

* Campanula glomerata var. sparsiflora DC. f. (1839) = Campanula glomerata ssp. Aggregata (W., 1813). Capolino terminale accompagnato da ca. numerosi capolini ascellari (talvolta ridotti a 1-2). Capolino ascellari sessili o quasi. Pianta glabrescente, verdastra (4-8dm.). - Col tipo qua e la. - Campanula glomerata var. Lam (1783), - Campanula glomerata var. Hermanni Ten. (1830), - Campanula glomerata var. glabra Bluff et Fing. (1836), - Campanula glomerata var. sparsiflora DC. f. (1839)69)

1.789. 5e. Alphonse de Candolle ( a fleurs eparses) Synonyme: Campanula aggregata Willd. - Plante de 40 a 80 cm.; feuilles assez rudes, d'un vert fonce; plusieurs tiges fleuries, flexueuses, partant de la base de la plante; feuilles inferieures (au-dessus de celles de la base qui sont le plus souvent detruites lors de la floraison) ovales-allongees; feuilles superieures embrassant a moitie la tige par leur base; groupes de fleurs l'un terminal, les autres l'aisselle de feuilles superrieures; corolles ne depassant guere 12 mm. de longueur. (Ca et la, assez commun).70)
* Campanula glomerata ssp. Speciosa (Horn., 1815). Capolino terminale unico, rr. con qualche fascetto di fi. ascellari. Fg. infer. ca. arrotondato-cuoriformi alla base, ovali. Corolla grande. Pianta alta sino a 10dm., a fg. tutte cuoriformi-ovali. Per lo piu colt. 71)
A fleurs grandes formant de gros bouquets serres.72)

  • Campanula glomerata var. speciosa (Hornem.) A. DC. ex Ker-Gawl. Synoniem Campanula speciosa Hornem 73).

Campanula speciosa Hornem., non Gilib., synony;Campanula glomerata L. var. dahurica Fisch.; Campanula cephalotes Fisch. ex Nakai; Campanula glomerata sensu auct. Japon., non L. - Yatsushiro-so.74)

* Campanula glomerata var. speciosa aberrans

* Campanula glomerata var. speciosa aggregata

* Campanula glomerata var. speciosa composita

* Campanula glomerata var. speciosa cordifolia

* Campanula glomerata var. speciosa elliptica. Capolino terminale unico, rr. con qualche fascetto di fi. ascellari. Fg. infer. appena arrotondate alla base, ellittiche. Brattee piu grandi. - Carnia, Veron., Abr. ecc.75)

* Campanula glomerata var. speciosa glabra

* Campanula glomerata var. speciosa glabra subcordata

* Campanula glomerata var. speciosa glabra subcuncata

* Campanula glomerata var. speciosa ramosa

* Campanula glomerata var. speciosa subcordata

* Campanula glomerata var. speciosa subcuncata

* Campanula glomerata var. spreng

* Campanula glomerata var. stenosiphon

* Campanula glomerata ssp. Typica, Capolino terminale unico, rr. con qualche fascetto di fi. ascellari. Fg. infer. ca. arrotondato-cuoriformi alla base, ovali. Corolla mediocre. Pianta pelosa o glabrescente, alta 2-4dm. o nei luoghi sterili soltanto 3-6cm. e con capolino a pochi fi. (= Campanula glomerata var. f. pusilla DC. f. (1839). - Istria, It. super., App. sett. e centr. sino camp., avell. a M. Vergine, salern. nei M. di Calvanico e lucano pr. Muro ed Abriola, da confermarsi per la Sard. nel Sassarese. - Campanula serotina Wettst. (1900) (forma).76)

* Campanula glomerata var. white queen

* Campanula glomerata var. willd

Germination

Campanula glomerata - Foto and drawing Herman Berteler

Cultivars

* Campanula glomerata cv. ‘Alba‘ is listed Campanula glomerata cv. ‘Superba’, a more showy strain 77).

Campanula glomerata 'Alba' - MijnTuin.org - Photographer: Rosette Bernaers.
campanula glomerata 'Alba' - MijnTuin.org - Photographer: Frans Noyelle.

Top Height 40cm, total height with flower 70/80cm. Not evergreen - Cut flower. This Campanula flower has a slightly different than most Campanulas, the bells are moorings, the leaf is rough hairy. Flowering: White on May/July. Sun/partial shade.78)

* Campanula glomerata cv. 'Acaulis' 79).

Campanula glomerata cv. 'Acaulis' - Photographer: Majella Larochelle.

* Campanula glomerata cv. 'Acaulis Alba'

Campanula glomerata cv 'Acaulis Alba' - Foto Herman Berteler
Campanula glomerata cv 'Acaulis Alba' - Foto Herman Berteler

* Campanula glomerata cv. 'Bellefleur™ Blue'

Campanula glomerata 'Bellefleur™ Blue' - Photographer: Perennials.com.

USDA Zone: 2-9. Plant number: 1.111.130. Clustered Bellflower is a very easy early-summer bloomer, this dwarf selection being especially good for border edging, containers, the rock garden or walls. It forms a low mound of coarse green leaves, bearing upright stems with large clusters of deep violet-blue funnel shaped blooms. Trim off spent flower stems to tidy plants up for the remainder of the season. Plants have a tendency to spread and form a patch, which may be easily reduced in size or divided in spring or early autumn. This strain was bred by Syngenta Flowers, developed originally for containers but also outstanding directly in the garden. Sun Exposure; Full Sun or Partial Shade. Soil Type; Normal or Sandy or Clay. Soil pH; Neutral or Alkaline or Acid. Soil Moisture; Average or Moist. Care Level; Easy. Flower Colour; Deep Blue, Purple. Blooming Time; Early Summer, Mid Summer. Foliage Color; Deep Green. Accent: Good Texture/Form, Alpine & Rock, Border, Containers, Edging, Rabbit Resistant, Massed Flower Head, Size Large. Height; 15-25 cm, 6-10 inches. Spread; 30-60 cm, 12-23 inches. Foot Traffic; None. Growth Rate; Medium.80)

* Campanula glomerata cv. 'Caroline'

Campanula glomerata cv. 'Caroline' - Photographer: Bluebell Cottage & Gardens Nursery
Campanula glomerata 'Caroline' - MijnTuin.org - Photographer: Pascal Coyles

Multi-hued flowers in shades of purple and lilac, mid summer. Flowers form tight clusters about 5 inches across on short stems above neat, mat-forming foliage. Foliage forms neat mats which all but vanish below ground in winter. Height about 30cm. Spread: 1 to 3 feet. Hardy perennial.81)

Campanula glomerata cv. 'Caroline' - Photographer: Marjolaine Lariviere.
Campanula glomerata cv. 'Caroline' - Photographer: Bellflower Nursery

Campanula glomerata 'Caroline', Nursery The Border, Castle Twickel at Delden, Netherlands. Photo: Herman Berteler

* Campanula glomerata cv. 'Dahurica' 82).

* Campanula glomerata cv. dahurica 'Odessa' - Odessa bellflower

Campanula glomerata cv. dahurica 'Odessa' - Photographer: Missouri Botanical Garden

An erect bellflower cultivar that typically grows to 2-3’ tall. Flower stems are topped with upright, dense, terminal clusters of bell-shaped, dark purple flowers over a May to July bloom period. Each flower cluster typically contains 12-18 flowers. Toothed, ovate, dark green foliage, with basal leaves to 5” long and stem leaves to 3-4” long. Rock gardens, borders, cottage gardens or informal naturalized areas. Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Prefers part shade in hot summer climates. Needs consistent moisture. Promptly remove spent flower stems to encourage additional bloom. Divide clumps in fall every 3-5 years to maintain vigor and/or to control spread. Plants naturalize by rhizomes and can be spread freely, particularly in moist soils.83)
* Campanula glomerata cv. 'Emerald'

Campanula glomerata cv. 'Emerald' - Photographer: Majella Larochelle.

* Campanula glomerata cv. 'Freya'

Campanula glomerata cv. Freya - Photographer: Steve Hopkins
Campanula glomerata 'Freya', Nursery The Border, Castle Twickel at Delden, Netherlands. Photo: Herman Berteler

Hybridizer Arie Blom at AB-Cultivars in The Netherlands. Blooms from late May to July, flowering continuously. Last year, Arie brought us the top selling Campanula glomerata cv. ‘Viking’. The brand new ‘Freya’ is a bit similar but with key differences: it is hardier (zone 3), blooms earlier, and produces clusters of star-shaped flowers rather than bells. The Knee-high clump of sturdy, green foliage is comprised of compact, clump forming rosettes. Compared to other glomerata types, this new cultivar is much more floriferous, with its flower stems comprising about 2/3 of the height of the plant. Full clusters of small, star-shaped, lilac purple flowers are borne almost all the way up the strong, upright, well-branched stems. ‘Freya’ will be the star of your garden next spring! Intro Year: 2010. Breeder: Arie Blom. Introducer: Plants Nouveau. Date of Introduction: Grower Introduction – 2011 | Retail Introduction 2012.

Campanula glomerata cv. 'Freya' - Photographer: Arie Blom Plants Nouveau

Campanula glomerata cv. 'Freya' - Photographer: Arie Blom Plants Nouveau
Campanula glomerata cv. 'Freya' - Photographer: Arie Blom Plants Nouveau

Characteristics:
Size: 10-15” tall by 15-18” wide. Flower Color: Purple shades. Foliage Color: Green shades. Hardiness Zone: 3,4,5,6,7,8. Find Your Zone Sun or Shade?: Full sun (> 6 hrs. direct sun). Part shade (4-6 hrs. direct sun). Wet or dry?: Average water needs. Want to see wings?: Attracts hummingbirds. Need critter resistant plants?: Deer resistant. How fast should it grow?: Medium. When should it bloom?: Late spring Early summer. How's your soil?: Average Soil Fertile Soil Sweet or Sour Soil?: Acidic Soil (pH < 7.0), Neutral Soil (pH = 7.0), Alkaline Soil (pH > 7.0). What's your garden style?: Container/Patio, Cottage, Eclectic. [http://www.waltersgardens.com/plants/view/?plant=2002] Market appeal / Uniqueness: Freya is a sturdy, non-invasive, compact new selection with a multiple stems that hold many deep violet-blue, starry bell-shaped blooms. Hummingbirds will hover around this fantastic new selection. Propagation Methods: vegetative stem cuttings, divisions, tissue culture

* Campanula glomerata cv. ‘Joan Elliott’

Campanula glomerata ‘Joan Elliott’ - Photographer: Perennials.com.

glomerata cv. 'Joan Elliott :Orig 013103-0312-76 Locn 1B 05, rec: PLNT: 1ab: 1, ayr: 76 84)
USDA Zone: 2-9. Plant number: 1.110.800. Bellflowers are among the most popular of perennials. This Clustered Bellflower selection has a mid-sized habit. It forms a mound of coarse green leaves low to the ground, with taller stems that bear large clusters of rich deep violet-blue to purple flowers in early summer. Superb for cutting. Quickly spreads to form a small patch, but easily managed by dividing plants in spring or fall. Combines beautifully with anything gold or yellow, for contrast. Worth trying in containers. If desired, trim plants back to 4 inches after flowering, to rejuvenate the foliage and tidy up for the remainder of the season. Sun Exposure; Full Sun or Partial Shade. Soil Type; Normal or Sandy or Clay. Soil pH; Neutral or Alkaline or Acid. Soil Moisture; Average or Moist. Care Level; Easy. Flower Colour; Purple. Blooming Time; Early Summer, Mid Summer. Foliage Color; Deep Green. Accent: Good Texture/Form, Border, Cut Flower, Rabbit Resistant, Massed Flower Head, Size Large. Height; 45-50 cm, 18-20 inches. Spread; 60-75 cm, 23-29 inches. Foot Traffic; None. Growth Rate; Fast.85)
* Campanula glomerata cv. ‘Purple Pixie’

Campanula glomerata ‘Purple Pixie’ - Photographer: Perennials.com.
Campanula glomerata cv. 'Purple Pixie' - Photographer: Majella Larochelle.

USDA Zone: 2-9. Plant number: 1.110.840. Bellflowers are among the most popular of perennials. This is an outstanding selection with a mid-sized habit. Plants form a mound of coarse green leaves, bearing large clusters of deep purple-blue flowers in mid-summer. Excellent for cutting. Quickly spreads to form a small patch, but easily managed by dividing plants in spring or fall. Looks terrific in the border with any dwarf white Shasta Daisy, or plant next to something gold or yellow for a spectacular contrast. Great in containers. Sun Exposure; Full Sun or Partial Shade. Soil Type; Normal or Sandy or Clay. Soil pH; Neutral or Alkaline or Acid. Soil Moisture; Average or Moist. Care Level; Easy. Flower Colour; Purple. Blooming Time; Early Summer, Mid Summer. Foliage Color; Deep Green. Accent: Good Texture/Form, Border, Containers, Cut Flower, Edging, Rabbit Resistant, Massed, Flower Head Size; Large. Height; 40-60 cm, 16-23 inches. Spread; 45-60 cm, 18-23 inches. Foot Traffic; None. Growth Rate; Fast.86)

* Campanula glomerata cv. 'Schneekrone' 87).

Campanula glomerata L. cv. 'Schneekrone' 2461-77. Orig. Hort. Fr. Campanule á bouquet Ang. Bellflower De: Hort. Bot. Univ., Tartu, URSS. Descr.: sem. 31-5-7788)

* Campanula glomerata cv. 'Snowflake'

Species actually grown or used for breeding 89)

* Campanula glomerata cv. 'Superba' 90). See Campanula glomerata cv. ‘Alba‘

Campanula glomerata cv 'Superba' - Foto Grethe Clausen
Campanula glomerata 'Superba' - Photographer: Perennials.com.

Breeder: G. Arend (1910)

The basel leaves are light green, scabrous rather thick, rugose, hairy and long-petioled, 11cm long, 5cm broad. The stem-leaves are smaller, about 6cm long and 3 cm broad, mostly sessile. The stems are of a reddish colour, rough and angular. The second year te plant is 50cm broad and 70cm high during blossom.

Flowering season about 3 weeks from the 20th of June. The flower is upright, 3,5cm long and 3,5cm wide, each corolla lobe 1,2cm long. A fine perennial plant for group and cutting 91)

The variety Campanula glomerata var. alba is basically a white-flowered version of the popular purple-flowered Campanula glomerata cv. 'Superba'. 92)

USDA Zone: 2-9. Plant number: 1.110.280. Bellflowers are among the most popular of perennials. This selection will produce a low clump of large green leaves. Medium-tall upright stems appear in early summer, bearing large, showy clusters of rich purple funnel-shaped flowers. Terrific for cutting. Plants will quickly form a large clump, so allow plenty of space when planting, or plan to reduce the size each spring. Easily divided in spring or fall. Plants may benefit from a hard clipping back immediately after blooming, to maintain a low, compact mound. Sun Exposure; Full Sun or Partial Shade. Soil Type; Normal or Sandy or Clay. Soil pH; Neutral or Alkaline or Acid. Soil Moisture; Average or Moist. Care Level; Easy. Flower Colour; Purple. Blooming Time; Early Summer, Mid Summer. Foliage Color; Deep Green. Accent: Good Texture/Form, Border, Cut Flower, Rabbit Resistant, Massed, Woodland, Flower Head Size; Large. Height; 60-75 cm, 23-29 inches. Spread; 60-70 cm, 23-27 inches. Foot Traffic; None. Growth Rate; Fast.93)
Campanula glomerata L. cv. 'Superba' 2493-77. Orig. Hort. Fr. Campanule á bouquet Ang. Bellflower De: Hort. Bot., Lodz, Pologne. Descr.: sem. 2-6-7794)
* Campanula glomerata cv. 'Viking'
Angela’s Garden Notes [http://www.plantsnouveau.com/plant/campanula-viking-ppaf]:
I am happy to bring you another breakthrough from the breeding brilliance of Arie Blom at AB-Cultivars in The Netherlands. Arie’s quest for Campanula punctata like blooms on a well contained, short statured, but compact and densely blooming plant has brought us this novel beauty. The name Viking brings to mind images of strength and vigor. This new Campanula has both strength and vigor as well as many superior qualities. Viking stands at a maximum (in full bloom) of 18” tall and spreads to make a lovely and floriferous 24” clump within the first two growing seasons.

Campanula glomerata cv. 'Viking'- Photographer: Arie Blom Plants Nouveau

Although this new selection bulks up quickly, it does not spread by rhizomes like the parent plant and the seeds are sterile, so not even the birds can spread them around. This hybrid selection will get larger in the garden, as most perennials do, but it does so by spreading underground in the most petite way. The first year in the ground in my garden, Viking almost doubled in size, but none of the new shoots were more than an inch away from the outermost shoots of the original plant. Therefore, I feel comfortable saying it will not become a thug, and I’m happy to report it will provide you months of clear lavender, tubular bell flowers - perfect for attracting hummingbirds and other passers-by to your garden.
Characteristics:
Size: 15-18” tall by 18-24” wide. USDA hardiness Zones 5-8. Sun / Shade: full sun. Soil: average garden soil. Moisture: moist, but well drained. Disease and Pests: none known. Landscape use: front to middle of the border, foundation plantings, mass plantings, butterfly gardens, cutting gardens, cottage gardens. Market appeal / Uniqueness: Viking is a sturdy, non-invasive, sterile new selection with a compact stature and clear lavender, tubular, bell-shaped blooms. Hummingbirds will hover around this fantastic new selection. Propagation Methods: vegetative stem cuttings, divisions, tissue culture. Bloom Time: from late May to July, flowering continuously.

Origine

Europe: toute l'Europe jusque dans le Sud de la Presqu'ile scandinave. Hor's d'Europe: Quest et Centre de l'Asie, Siberie, Daourie, Japon; naturalise dans l'Amerique du Nord.95)

Jugoslavije96)

Originaria dell'Europa, comune in Italia nei luoghi sterili. 97)

Europe, Eurasia, Mittelasien, N.Amerika.
Prati e luoghi sterili, comune; 2-6. (Eur. As. min. Sib., nat. Am. bor.)
Conques-sur-Orbiel, Aude, Montolieu, Rieussec, Vertault, Cote-d'Or, France 98).

Campanula glomerata after cut - Foto Herman Berteler Dordogne France Aug.2012
Campanula glomerata after cut - Foto Herman Berteler Dordogne France Aug.2012

Kokonaislevinneisyydeltaan Campanula glomerata on hyvin laaja-alainen, vaikka hirvenkellon Tanskassa ja Norjassa verraten harvinainen ja tuskin alkuperainen. Etelassa esiintymia ulottuu Valimeren maiden pohjoisosiin, idassa Vahaan-Aasiaan ja Persiaan seka Siperiassa Baikaljarvelle. Neuvostoliiton itaosissa, Kiinassa ja Japanissa Campanula glomerata n korvaa laheinen, kaikin puolin kookkaampi ja haarovakukintoinen laji Campanula cephalotes Nakai. - Ihmisen tuomana ja kotiutuneena perankelloa on myos Pohjois-Amerikassa monin paikoin.

Maassamme laji on yleisimmillaan jarvialueella. Sen sijaan Lounais-Suomessa ja Ahvenanmaalla lajilla on niukasti esiintymia ja se puuttuu Saaristomeren alueelta kokonaan. Jarvialueen pohjoispuolella laji on varsin harvinainen. Kainuussa on joitakin radanvarsiesiintymia; pohjoisimmat pysyvat kasvupaikat lienevat Oulun-Suomussalmen leveydella. Muutama satunnaisluontoiseksi tai koristekarkulaiseksi katsottava loyto asumusten lahettyvilta tunnetaan niinkin pohjoisesta kuin Kittilasta ja rajan takaa Petsamosta. Taivalkoskella peurankellon tiedetaan kasvaneen ainakin 10 vuotta eraan talon pihapiirissa, mutta kasvin alkupera on epavarma.

Peurankello kasvaa hikevilla niityilla, pientareilla ja kedoilla. Se hyotyy selvasti ihmisen toiminnasta, ja esiintyy harvoin selvast luonnonvaraisissa yhdyskunnissa. Esim. Ruotsissa laji pidetaan alkuperaisena enintaan Uplannissa ja Gotlannissa. Meilla lajin alkuperaisilta kasvupaikoilta vaikuttavat lehtopensaikot ja jokivarsien ja jarvenratojen ruohikkoiset toyraat.99).

Campanula glomerata L. - Peurankello J.N. page 661 - Photographer: Herman Berteler.

Zaden verzameld in 1947 in Koeban en in 1971 in de bergketen Terski-Alatau, bij Alma-Ata, in de bos-weide-steppen gordel. 100)

Living

Cette espèce est répandue dans la plupart des contrées de notre Flore, surtout sur les terrains calcaires et argileux, dansles clairieres et les chemins des bois, les prairies et sur les coteaux. Distribution. Prefere assez souvent les terrains calcaires et argileux; ne s'eleve guere a plus de 1.200 m. d'altitude sur les diverses montagnes, cependant atteint jusqu'aux sommets de la chaine jurassique. France; commun ou assez commun en general, mais rare ou assez rare dans le Finistere, la Haute-Vienne, la Provence, les Alpes-Maritimes. Suisse; commun en general. Belgique; rare, mais abondant dans les localites ou il se trouve, dans les Regions houillere, jurassique et de l'Ardenne.101)

Che vive nei boschi radi, su terreni preferibilmente calcarei, salendo sino ai 1.700m. e fiorendo da giugno ad agosto. 102)
Non ha particolari esigenze in fatto di terreno, ma generalmente cresce su suoli calcarei e pietrosi. Il terreno dev'essere abbastanza umido durante 1 mesi estivi.103)

Beneficial

Culture et Multiplication. Cette espéce aime les sols calcaires, pierreux, ce qui la fait rechercher pour la décoration des parties séches des rocailles; elle peut aussi entrer dans l'ornementation des plates-bandes, mais on lui préfére généralement les deux variétés décrites ci-aprés, qui sont, en effet, plus élégantes. On la multiplie soit par la division des pieds, soit de graines que l'on doit semer d'Avril en Juin, en pépniére; on repique ensuite les plants en pépiniére, en automne, et on les met en place au printemps.104)

Usages et propriétés. Cultivé comme plante ornementale pour décorer les plates-bandes; il en existe de nombreuses varietes horticoles a fleurs simples et surtout a fleurs doubles bleues, violettes ou blanches. La plante à été employée contre les angines; on croyait autrefois, en Russie, qu'elle pouvait quérir la rage.105)

Le piantine o i semi di molte altre Campanule nostrane entrate in commercio: la Campanula glomerata adatta per le zone semi-ombreggiate del giardino. 106)

Besonders beliebt als Ziergewachs. 107)
Come si coltiva. La Campanula non e generalmente un fiore difficile da coltivare. Essendo originaria delle zone temperate dell'emisfero boreale, dove cresce su terreni freschi o umidi di regioni in prevalenza montane, richiede, oltre a un'esposizione luminosa e non troppo soleggiata, le stesse condizioni ambientali: il terreno, fatta eccezione per qualche specie, deve contenere una certa percentuale di calcio. Questo non significa che le Campanula non si possano coltivare magnificamente anche su un terrazzo assolatissimo. Per esperienza personale posso assicurare che la Campanula pyramidalis, la Campanula isophylla, la Campanula glomerata, la Campanula garganica, la Campanula carpatica, la Campanula fragilis e la Campanula persicaefolia, per limitarsi a poche, prosperano ottimamente sul terrazzo sotto un sole cocente, purche generosamente annaffiate. La Campanula carpatica e la Campanula garganica possono essere coltivate bene anche in vasi di cm. 16-18 di diametro, mentre la Campanula pyramidalis vuole uno spazio maggiore (cm 30) e la Campanula glomerata una misura intermedia.108)
Une campanule que j'abomine á cause des multiples ennuis qu'elle m'a procurés est Campanula rapunculoides. La méme amie, suspectement aimable qui me donna Linaria cymbalaria, m'en fournit une touffe ainsi qu'une autre de Campanula glomerata. Cette derniére se propagea d'une facon insupportable, mais que dire de Campanula rapunculoides, les mots me manquent!109)
Most populer Campanula plants as a commercial production in Japan is Campanula portenschlagiana (we say bell flower in only this species).

Other important species of Campanula are Campanula persifolia, Campanula medium and Campanula glomerata for cut flower but recently dwarf variety and possible to dwarffing by the retardant chemicals it production is increasing. (you can see on Copy-3 to 4)110).

1) , 14) , 26) , 50) , 54) , 67) , 68) , 99)
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2) , 7) , 8) , 16) , 20) , 46) , 52) , 104)
:ref:deVilmorin01
3)
:ref:JDamboldt01
4) , 6) , 19) , 24) , 34) , 38) , 40) , 48) , 53) , 55) , 56) , 61) , 62) , 64) , 65) , 66) , 69) , 71) , 75) , 76)
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5) , 42) , 73) , 77)
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9) , 17) , 21) , 39) , 41) , 47) , 51) , 60) , 63) , 70) , 72) , 95) , 101) , 105)
:ref:gastonbonnier01
10)
:ref:jardinbotaniquedeluniversitedeliege01
11) , 18) , 22) , 102) , 106)
:ref:gnicolini01
12) , 23) , 97) , 103) , 108)
:ref:ippolitopizzetti01
13) , 28) , 107)
:ref:aengler01
15) , 29) , 100)
:ref:a.k.skvortsov01
25)
:ref:alpinaresearch02
27) , 31) , 36) , 44) , 49) , 89)
:ref:alpinaresearch03
30) , 45) , 88) , 94)
:ref:MontrealJardinbotanique01
32) , 78)
:ref:MijnTuin.org01
33) , 37) , 80) , 85) , 86) , 93)
:ref:perennials01
35) , 83) , 92)
:ref:missouribotanicalgarden01
43) , 74)
:ref:JisaburoOhwi01
57) , 84)
:ref:UBCBotanicalGarden01
58) , 59)
:ref:ChugaiNursery.Co.Inc.
79) , 82) , 87) , 90) , 91)
:ref:GretheClausen01
81)
:ref:BlueBellCottage01
96)
:ref:frankusan01
98)
:ref:JLambinon01
109)
:ref:S.A.J.A.01
110)
:ref:TokyoAgricult.Exp.Station01
campanula/glomerata.txt · Laatst gewijzigd: 2019/02/03 17:49 (Externe bewerking)