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campanula:garganica

garganica

Campanula garganica

Ten.

Campanula garganica - Flower.onego.ru - Photo: Yevgeny Tarasov

garganica Tenore :Orig 004842-0117-72 Locn 1A EU, rec: PLNT: 1ab: 1, dis: ITALY, ayr: 72 1)

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Infrageneric Taxa

Fam. des Campanulacées. Section 2: Calice sans appendice. Groupe 2: - Fleurs pédicellées. Capsules dressées á 3 loges2)

Nomenclatuur

Ovu su vrstu opisali pod imenom Campanula Portenschlagiana 1819 Roemer i Schultes u djelu: Systema veg. V:93, i to na temelju materijala koji je saobrao Portenschlag te im ga poslao bez oznake imena. Medutim, istu biljku nalazimo u Portenslagovu herbaru (koji je kasnije najvecim dijelom ulozen u herbarske zbirke W) oznacenu ponekad imenom Campanula muralis, a ponekad Campanula hederaefolia: prvo je ime preuzeo i kasnije objavio i Reichenbach (1832).

Visiani (1847, II.: 133) navodi pod imenom Campanula Portenschlagiana R. et S. i oba navedena imena iz Portenslagova herbara, medutim stavlja sinonim Campanula muralis Rchb. pogresno uz vrstu Campanula garganica Ten. Visiani-jevi navodi za vrstu Campanula garganica (kao i ono sto pod tim imenom objavljuju Schlosser i Vukotinovic 1869:951) ne odnose se, dakle, na vrstu Campanula portenschlagiana, ali ni na tip vrste Campanula garganica, koji je endemican u podrucju M. Gargano (Italija), vec dijelom na svojtu Campanula istriaca Feer, a dijelom na Campanula fenestrellata Feer (odnosno njen verijetet lepida). Osim toga pod vrstu Campanula portenschlagiana treba staviti i Visiani-jevu Campanula Morettiana (non Rchb.!), koju je on uvrstio na temelju nedovoljnog herbarskog materijala, sto ga je sabrao Portenschlag na Biokovu (usporedi i Hayek 1931:534).
Napokon je nejasno, zbog cega su Schlosser i Vukotinovic (1869:951) objavili Visiani-jeve podatke o Campanula portenschlagiana pod imenom Campanula hederaefolia Portenschl., koje ni tada nije bilo valjano. Prema iznesenome imali bismo, dakle ovaj pregled kritickih svojti (taksona): * A. Vjencic lijevkasto-zvonolok sa zarezima kracim od polovine njegove duzine: Campanula portenschlagiana R. et S. (s naprijed navedenom sinonimikom); juzna Dalmacija. * B. Vjencic plosnat sa zarezima dubljim od polovine njegove duzine: Campanula garganica Ten. (spec. coll.)

  • 1. subsp. garganica (endemicna u juznoj Italiji)
  • 2. subsp. fenestrellata (Feer) Hay.(hrv. Primorje, sjev. Dalmacija) sa var. lepida (Feer) Hay. (sjev. Dalmacija)
  • 3. subsp. istriaca (Feer) Hay., (Kvarner, Hrv. Primorje)
  • 4. subsp. cephallenica (Feer) Hay., (Jonsko more)3)

L.
Ten. = Tenore 4)
Campanula garganica Ten. synonym Campanula elatines L. var. garganica (Ten) Fiori 5).
Campanula garganica Vis. p. p. (1874), Rchb. f. (1860), non Ten. = Campanula Elatines ssp. Istriaca (Feer, 1890) Peduncoli 1-3-flori. Calice a lobi assai piu brevi della corolla. - Piante glabre o pubescenti. Peduncoli ad 1 (rr. 2) fi. Piante ca. pelose. Fg. grandi come nel tipo, profondam. ed acutam. dentate, tutte ovali. Corolla lunga 10-12 e larga circa 20mm. - Istria mer. pr. Fianona e sul M. Sissol. is. Lussin. (Is. del Quarnero). - Campanula Pontenschlagiana var. pubescens DC. f. p. p. (1839). Section VI: Elatines Wohlf. (1895)6)
Campanula garganica Ten. = Campanula elatines var. garganica 7)

Names

E.: Italian Bellflower

Fr.: Campanule du mont Gargano

Habitus

Jolie et curieuse petite espéce á tiges glabres, nombreuses, etalées, diffuses et abondamment garnies de feuilles petites, reniformes, arrondies, fortement crénelées-dentées. Fleurs nombreuses, assez grandes, en cloche trés courte et ouverte, ou plutót en forme de coupe, d'un bleu clair8).

Campanula Garganica - MijnTuin.org.

Altezza: cm. 10. Un'altra specie montana molto graziosa e curiosa, che si puo coltivare allo stesso modo della Campanula cochlearifolia. Specie erbacca perenne, a fusti glabri, diffusi. 9)

Kleine, meist rasenbildende Arten mit traubigen, meist wenigblutigen Blutenstanden. Fast kahl.10)
A perennial plant up to 15 cm tall with creeping and raises very brittle stems. It forms a compact bush. Leaves petiolate, medium-sized, round, tridentate. Blue flowers with open petals are like stars, up to 4 cm in diameter. Flowers in July. Flowering is so abundant that it is not visible leaves. Fruiting stretched from July to August. 11)

Leaves

Provvisti di foglie piccole, reniformi, crenate. 12)

Der transadriatische Kompleks der Arten der Serie Garganicae (Campanula garganica, Campanula istriaca, Campanula fenestrellata, Campanula portenschlagiana, Campanula poscherskyana, Campanula debarensis) ist sehr variabil. In dieser Arbeit wurden die behaarung der Blatter und die Grossen der Pollen untersucht.
Die mittleres Teil dieses Komplexes (Campanula garganica - Campanula portenschlagiana) ist sehr variabil, wie in Anbetracht der Behaarung, sowie in Anbetracht der Pollengrosse. In der Richtung gegen Norden sind die Kollen (Pollen?) immer grosser bei den behaarten Formen (Campanula istriaca) und immer kleiner bei den kahlen Formen (Campanula fenestrellata). In der Richtung gegen Suden sind die Pollen immer grosser und die Behaarung ausdrulicher (Campanula poscharskyana - Campanula debarensis). Die litoralen Formen sind immer behaart, die montane und subalpine Formen sind kahl.13)
It forms a compact bush. Leaves petiolate, medium-sized, round, tridentate. 14)

Flowers

La floraison a lieu en Mai-Juin ou en Juin-juillet, selon la température et l'exposition.15).

Fioritura: V-VI / VI-VII secondo le zone.- I fiori a campanule molto corte, aperte, quasi a forma di stella, sono azzurro pallido. 16)
In dieser Arbeit analisierten wir einige morphologische Karakteristken (Blattbehaarung und Pollengrosse) mit Betracht auf die geographische Verbreitung einselnen Formen. Auf Grund dieser Untersuchubgen kann man folgendes feststellen:
* 1) Am variabilsten ist der Mittlere Teil - der transadriatischen Areals der Serie (Campanula garganica - Campanula portenschlagiana). Da sind in der Population die kahlen und auch die behaarten Formen vertreten, sowie Pollen verschiedener Grossen in den Grenzen 30-40Mm. 17)
Blue flowers with open petals are like stars, up to 4 cm in diameter. Flowers in July. Flowering is so abundant that it is not visible leaves. 18)

Chromosomes

Na temelju karioloske analize ustanovio je J. Damboldt (1965) da se unutar njegove skupine Isophyllae mogu razlikovati vrste s brojem kromosoma 2n = 32 (Campanula fragilis kompleks) i vrste s brojem kromosoma 2n = 34 (Campanula garganica kompleks). Prema nasim misljenju potrebno je svakom od navedenih kompleksa dati odredeni taksonomski status, sto je u ovom radu i ucinjeno.19)

Na temelju podataka R. Wohlfahrtha (1902), A. Fioria (1925), A. Hayeka (1931), J. Damboldta (1965), mozemo skupinu izofilnih zvoncica prikazati na slijedeci nacin:

* Campanula, sect. Campanula
Subsect. Elatines (Wohlfahrth) Trinajstic, comb. nov.

  • Bas. = Rotte Elatines Wohlfahrth in Halier et Wohlfahrth.

W. D. J. Koch's Syn Deutsch. u. Schweiz. Fl. ed. 3, 2: 1275 (1902).

  • Syn = Sect. Elatines (Wohlfahrth) Fiori, Nuov. Fl. Anal. d'Ital. 2: 557 (1925-1929).

1. Ser. Elatines - Numerositas chromosomorum 2n = 34, rossulae foliorum steriles non evolutae. Typus seriei: Campanula elatines L.
2. Ser. Garganicae Trinajstic, ser. nov. - Numerositas chromosomorum 2n = 34, rossulae foliorum steriles evolutae. Typus seriei: Campanula garganica T e n.
3. Ser. Fragiles Trinajstic, ser. nov. - Numerositas chromosomorum 2n = 32. Typus seriei: Campanula fragilis Cyrillo
20)

Fruit

Kapsel nahe am Grunde aufspringend (Hangende Kapseln springen meist nahe am Grunde, aufrechte nahe den Kelchb. auf. Man kann daher im Allgemeinen die Art des Aufspringens aus der Stellung der verbluhten Bl. erschliessen, besonders wenn diese gestielt sind.) Sect. I Medium Tourn. (als Gatt.). B. Triloculares. Kapsel 3facherig (seltener bei ein- und derselben Art hier und da auch 5facherig) 21)
Fruiting stretched from July to August. 22)

Varieties

* Campanula garganica var. alba

* Campanula garganica var. barbeyi

* Campanula garganica var. cephallenica (Feer) Hay., (Jonsko more)23)

* Campanula garganica var. erinus

* Campanula garganica var. erinus major

* Campanula garganica ssp. fenestrellata (Feer) Hay. (Hrv. Primorje, sjev. Dalmacija) sa var. Lepida (Feer) Hay. (sjev. Dalmacija)24)

* Campanula garganica ssp. garganica (endemicna u juznoj Italiji)25)

* Campanula garganica var. hirsuta

* Campanula garganica var. hirsuta alba

* Campanula garganica var. istriaca (Feer) Hay., (Kvarner, Hrv. Primorje)26)

* Campanula garganica ssp. lepida Campanula garganica ssp. fenestrellata (Feer) Hay. (Hrv. Primorje, sjev. Dalmacija) sa var. Lepida (Feer) Hay. (sjev. Dalmacija)27)

* Campanula garganica var. major

Major with pale blue flowers28)
* Campanula garganica var. minor

* Campanula garganica var. villosa

* Campanula garganica var. villosa alba

Cultivars

* Campanula garganica cv. 'Blue Diamond'

Campanula garganica cv 'Blue Diamond' - Foto Grethe Clausen

Breeder: English nuresey under this name.

The basal leaves ivy-shaped, strongly dentate and greish. The leaves as well as the whole plant pubescent. The compact cushion is 40-50cm broad and greyish. The number of flowers is countless, they are small, blue, open and with rotate or star-liked corolla, 2,5cm in diameter. Peduncles 7-8cm.

The flower shape is very attractive and the colour intensive RHS 92 A, brilliant violet. The buds which are like pearles starts to expand near the ground and gradually the whole plant becomes covered with flowers. Blossom from the middle of June until the beginning of July. A valuable variety suited for rock-garden and dry walls. Hardiness is perfect 29).

* Campanula garganica cv. 'Dickson's Gold'

AlpenPix - Campanula garganica cv.'Dickson's Gold' - Jane Hendrix - Note: 2 inches tall; medium blue with brassy, yellow foliage; full sun; well-draining garden soil; blooms in mid-summer.
Campanula garganica 'Dickson's Gold' - Photographer: Perennials.com.

USDA Zone: 4-9. Plant number: 1.110.260. A unique form of Bellflower, this features bright golden-yellow leaves and loose clusters of bright-blue flowers. It forms a low, compact mound, ideal for the rock garden or edging, and particularly nice in container gardens. Foliage may remain evergreen in mild winter regions. Prefers a moist, yet well-drained soil, with protection from hot afternoon sun. Easily divided in spring or early autumn. Sun Exposure; Full Sun or Partial Shade. Soil Type; Normal or Sandy or Clay. Soil pH; Neutral or Alkaline or Acid. Soil Moisture; Average or Moist. Care Level; Moderate. Flower Colour; Deep Blue. Blooming Time; Early Summer, Mid Summer, Late Summer. Foliage Color; Gold. Accent: Good Texture/Form. Alpine & Rock, Containers, Edging, Rabbit Resistant, Specimen, Flower Head Size; Small. Height; 10-15 cm, 4-6 inches. Spread; 15-30 cm, 6-12 inches. Foot Traffic; Light. Growth Rate; Medium.30)

Campanula garganica cv. Diskons Gold - Flower.onego.ru - Photo: Anna Petrovicheva

* Campanula garganica cv. 'W.H. Paine'

AlpenPix - Campanula garganica 'W.H.Paine' - Photographer: Grasham Nicholls - Note: This cultivar has richer blue flowers than the species and makes a fantastic mound of colour in summer. Well worth growing.
Campanula garganica cv. 'W.H. Pain' - Photographer: Bellflower Nursery

WH Paine - flowers are pale lavender-blue with a white eye31)
* Campanula garganica cv. 'Senior'
Light blue, big flower, blooms June July, height 15 cm, sun, half shadow, full shadow, compact growing

Campanula garganica 'Senior', Nursery The Border, Castle Twickel at Delden, Netherlands. Photo: Herman Berteler

Origin

Mittelitalien, Dalmatien, Kroatien etc.

Originaria dell'Italia, sul monte Gargano.32)

Sl. 1. - Areali vrsta serije Garganicae. - 6) Campanula garganica - Zeljka Lovasen-Eberhardt i I. Trinajstic, Biosistematika, Vol. 4, No0. 2, p.275, 1978

Die Serie der Gattung Campanula umfasst insgesammt 8 Arten, von dennen 6 Arten (Campanula istriaca, Campanula fenestrellata, Campanula garganica, Campanula portenschlagiana, Campanula poscharskyana, Campanula debarensis) die den adriatischen Teil der Apeninischen und Balkanhalbinsel begrenzt, und 2 Arten (Campanula cephallonica, Campanula acarnica) begrenzen den ionischen Teil der Balkanhalbinsel, mithin erweisen sie die spatterziare Distribution ihrer Urformen33)
Homeland - North Italy, Dalmatia.34)

Beneficial

Cette espéce forme des touffes denses qui produisent un bon effet sur les rocailles au nord ou á l'ets. Culture et multiplication du nr. 12. Le Campanula muralis Vis. (Campanula Portenschlagiana Roem. et Schult.), de la Dalmatie, est une élégante espéce vivace, intéressantte et jolie, voisine de la Campanule du mont Gargano, fleurissant á peu prés á la méme époque et pouvant étre cultivée et employee de la méme facon. (Campanula carpatica)35).

E una specie prostrata che forma piccoli cuscini di vegetazione. 36)
Die jungen Triebe und besonders die Wurzeln werden gegessen. Besonders beliebt als Ziergewachs. 37)
Come si coltiva. La Campanula non e generalmente un fiore difficile da coltivare. Essendo originaria delle zone temperate dell'emisfero boreale, dove cresce su terreni freschi o umidi di regioni in prevalenza montane, richiede, oltre a un'esposizione luminosa e non troppo soleggiata, le stesse condizioni ambientali: il terreno, fatta eccezione per qualche specie, deve contenere una certa percentuale di calcio. Questo non significa che le Campanula non si possano coltivare magnificamente anche su un terrazzo assolatissimo. Per esperienza personale posso assicurare che la Campanula pyramidalis, la Campanula isophylla, la Campanula glomerata, la Campanula garganica, la Campanula carpatica, la Campanula fragilis e la Campanula persicaefolia, per limitarsi a poche, prosperano ottimamente sul terrazzo sotto un sole cocente, purche generosamente annaffiate. La Campanula carpatica e la Campanula garganica possono essere coltivate bene anche in vasi di cm. 16-18 di diametro, mentre la Campanula pyramidalis vuole uno spazio maggiore (cm 30) e la Campanula glomerata una misura intermedia. 38)
In a culture since 1832.The plant is usually planted in partial shade the gorge in rock gardens. Propagated pieces of peeled stems in spring or late summer with the rearing in a greenhouse. The culture is capricious. Soil - a non-acidic, loamy. Do not tolerate stagnant waters and strong shading. Winter hardiness is relative. Requires good drainage. Use: very interesting for rocky gardens, curbs, mixborders, pot culture. 39)

1)
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:ref:flower.onego.ru01
9) , 12) , 16) , 32) , 36) , 38)
:ref:ippolitopizzetti01
13) , 17) , 19) , 20) , 33)
:ref:zeljkalovaseneberhardt02
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campanula/garganica.txt · Laatst gewijzigd: 2018/04/30 18:56 (Externe bewerking)